Help us continue to fight human rights abuses. Please give now to support our work. Since , the Russian authorities have intensified a crackdown on freedom of expression, selectively casting certain kinds of criticism of the government as threats to state security and public stability and introducing significant restrictions to online expression and invasive surveillance of online activity. While new restrictions on freedom of expression appear to target political opposition or civic groups, they affect all Russians. Since then, Parliament has adopted numerous laws that limit or can be used to interfere with freedom of speech and information. The authorities have wasted no time in invoking many of these laws. Some of the more recently adopted laws threaten privacy and secure communications on the internet and, in effect, make no digital communication in Russia safe from government interference.
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Censorship in Belarus , although prohibited by the country's constitution , is enforced by a number of laws. These include a law that makes insulting the president punishable by up to five years in prison, and another that makes criticizing Belarus abroad punishable by up to two years in prison. Freedom of the press in Belarus remains extremely restricted.
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LAS VEGAS -- Two researchers examining the processes for issuing web certificates have uncovered vulnerabilities that would allow an attacker to masquerade as any website and trick a computer user into providing him with sensitive communications. Normally when a user visits a secure website, such as Bank of America, PayPal or Ebay, the browser examines the website's certificate to verify its authenticity. However, IOActive researcher Dan Kaminsky and independent researcher Moxie Marlinspike, working separately, presented nearly identical findings in separate talks at the Black Hat security conference on Wednesday. Each showed how an attacker can legitimately obtain a certificate with a special character in the domain name that would fool nearly all popular browsers into believing an attacker is whichever site he wants to be. The problem occurs in the way that browsers implement Secure Socket Layer communications. Certificates for authenticating SSL communications are obtained through Certificate Authorities CAs such as VeriSign and Thawte and are used to initiate a secure channel of communication between the user's browser and a website. When an attacker who owns his own domain -- badguy. But an attacker can also request a certificate for a subdomain of his site, such as Paypal. The CA will issue the certificate for a domain like PayPal. Then, due to a flaw found in the way SSL is implemented in many browsers, Firefox and others theoretically can be fooled into reading his certificate as if it were one that came from the authentic PayPal site.
The following agreements regulate the supply of Leica Geosystems Trusted Services. For this purpose, Leica Geosystems shall make the software application available for the Customer and his authorised users to use. The corresponding prices and payment conditions are described in the Subscription Form. Leica Geosystems shall inform the Customer of these price increases in writing or by e-mail; the price increases shall not apply for periods where the customer has already made payments. Neither the Customer nor a third party can hold Leica Geosystems responsible for changing or terminating the service. The Customer shall not receive any additional rights, in particular to Leica Geosystems Trusted Services, the software related to it or the operating application. In particular, the Customer shall not be permitted to duplicate, sell or transfer Leica Geosystems Trusted Services, or parts thereof, for a limited period, which primarily means he may not lend nor rent it. Leica Geosystems shall inform the Customer about this immediately and shall take suitable measures to allow him to access his data.